Monday, July 25, 2011

ABC of Computer ...........................


Computer is divided by a Greek word “Compute” Which means count. (Ginthi karma)

Computer is a machine, which accepts the data, processes it and supplies the results. It is an electronic device that can store and convert the raw data into meaningful information.

CHARLES BABBAGE is called as the Father of Computer.


Computer works on the simple principle of input, process and output. Input is data entered into the Computer. Processing may involve calculating, selecting, sorting, and retrieving. Output is the meaningful information or processed data.

INPUT DEVICE: - The devices used to give input to the computer are called as input devices.
Examples: - keyboard, mouse, scanner, Floppy, CD’s.

OUTPUT DEVICE: - The devices used to get output from the computer are called out put devices.
Examples: - monitor, printer, Floppy.

COMMON DEVICE: - The device which acts as both input devices and output devices are called as common devices.
Examples: - Floppy, Hard disk, Compact Disk.

EXAMPLE ---- 4+6 =10.

In this example 4, 6, +, is called as input & 10 is called out put.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU): - Central processing unit is the brain of the computer. In this unit, the data is processed and stored. The Central Processing unit consists of

(A) MEMORY: - Memory is the place where data is stored before, after and while processing.

(B)ARITHMETIC & LOGIC UNIT (ALU):- ALU is used to perform all arithmetic & Logic operations. Plus, minus, multiplication, division, is called as arithmetic operations.

(C) CONTROL UNIT: - It controls all the functions of central processing unit.


Memory is the work space of computer. Data is stored while processing and given to the output devices from memory. There are two types of memory.

PRIMARY STORAGE OR MEMORY: - This is a temporary memory. In this memory the data is stored before, after and while processing. The data is stored in this memory only up to shutting down of the Computer. Primary Memory is of two types as under:-

(a) Random Access Memory (RAM):- This is volatile in nature when the machine is put off, all the data stored in this memory is wiped. (In this memory contains can be read and also can be changed)

(b) Read Only Memory (ROM):- This contains some wired (permanently stored) instructions, which helps the machine to operate. This data can be read only and not edited (In this memory contains can be read but can not be changed)

SECONDARY STORAGE: - Secondary storage is the place where the data is stored for later use. This is permanent memory. Examples: - Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, Magnetic Tapes.

BINARY DIGIT (BIT): The smallest unit to measure the capacity of memory.
Bit is represented by 0 or 1.

BYTE: - A group of 8 bits. And it represents a character.

STORAGE CAPACITY: - The storage capacity of memory units is calculated in bytes.

1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB)
1024 Kilo Bytes = 1 Megabyte (MB)
1024 Mega bytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB)

Environment Of Computer

Computer as a three distinct segments

1) HARDWARE – Hardware is the electronic part and physical parts of computer.
Ex:- Monitor, Printer, Floppy, Hard disk.

2) SOFTWARE – Software is a set of programs which controls the hardware and programs are the set of instructions.

a). System software. Ex-------- Windows, Linux, Dos.
b). Application software...Ex-------- Tally, MS office.
c). Utility software. Ex--------- Norton Anti virus.

3) LIVEWARE / SKINWARE – Livewire/ Skin ware comprises of the people who control the hardware and software.

BOOTING: - Booting is the process that occurs when we start the computer it checks all the connectivity of hardware devices & loads the operating system. Check the memory capacity utilized & left, also checks whether computer properly shut down for last time or not, also checks presence of any virus.

There are two types.

1) Cool Booting: - The normal process that occurs when we start the computer is called as cool booting.

2) Warm Booting: - When the computer struck or hangs then we press restart button on CPU which is called as warm booting.

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